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7 способов, которыми учёба в университете делает вас глупее

просмотров: 59968 | комментариев: 11 | опубликовано: 06.03.2013 13:25

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Учёные подсмотрели, как думают рыбы »»

То, как увлекательно и полезно обучаться в университете, получая высшее образование, вам уже много раз рассказывали. Сегодня мы приводим подборку из фактов, доказывающих, что за пять лет, потраченных на учёбу, вы не только узнаете много нового, но и, возможно, слегка поглупеете. Итак, семь научно проверенных способов, которыми учёба в университете делает вас глупее:

1. Групповое мышление

7 способов, которыми учёба в университете делает вас глупее

Университет — это учреждение, где процесс обучения осуществляется в коллективе. Не хватит ни времени, ни ресурсов, чтобы обучать каждого студента отдельно, так что в конечно итоге создаются группы из 20–30 человек. Часто преподаватели дробят группы на ещё более малые части, однако работа в маленьких группах не делает вас умнее.

Исследователи из научно-исследовательского института в Вирджинии попросили студентов пройти тесты на IQ сначала индивидуально, а потом в группах по пять человек. Во втором случае результаты были значительно хуже. Видимо так происходит потому, что социальный статус играет огромную роль в том, как работает наш мозг, так что когда людям приходится фокусироваться на их социальной роли в группе, пусть даже подсознательно, сосредоточиться на основной текущей задаче уже не получается. Исследователи считают, что за пять лет обучения такое поведение закрепляется и может проявляться уже после института, например, во время деловых встреч.

2. Сидение весь день

7 способов, которыми учёба в университете делает вас глупее

Сидение на одном месте весь день снижает умственные способности. Доктор Джеймс Левин из клиники Майо провёл ряд тестов, чтобы узнать, как длительное сидение влияет на человеческое здоровье, и результаты получились неутешительные.

Основной задачей было понять, как долгая ежедневная неподвижность влияет на увеличение веса, но оказалось, что это сказывается и на мозговой деятельности. Левин обнаружил, что у людей, которые сидят на месте больше двух часов в день, существенно снижается обмен веществ — фактор, непосредственно связанный с когнитивными способностями. Ваш мозг использует в качестве топлива глюкозу, возникающую в организме из-за сжигания калорий. Так что несколько часов занятий или ночная зубрежка перед экзаменами может привести к тому, что мозг начнёт воспринимать информацию не так эффективно.

3. Многозадачность

7 способов, которыми учёба в университете делает вас глупее

Наверняка быстро переключаться между текущими делами пробовали все. Напряжённое расписание занятий заставит любого студента попытаться сделать несколько вещей одновременно, но на самом деле это совершенно не способствует успеваемости. При попытке делать несколько дел одновременно, вы будете делать каждое из них хуже.

Тем студентам, которые стремятся быть многозадачными, воспринимать новую информацию и спустя короткое время вспоминать её сложно. Например, когда им показали буквенную последовательность, они не смогли указать, как часто повторяется одна и та же буква. Нередко студенты не могли определить, является ли число чётным или нечётным, или согласная перед ними буква или гласная. Исследователи полагают, что люди, регулярно работающие в многозадачном режиме, таким образом ослабили свои способности отфильтровывать ненужные данные, и теперь им сложно сосредоточиться на одном предмете. Так что в следующий раз, когда вы решаете математику на уроке социологии, можете просто покинуть аудиторию — так вы узнаете больше, как ни парадоксально это звучит.

4. Бег

7 способов, которыми учёба в университете делает вас глупее

Не важно, бегаете ли вы, чтобы снять стресс после напряжённого учебного дня или прогоняете утреннее похмелье, бег по улице — это прекрасный способ взбодриться и всё более модное увлечение среди молодёжи. Но для вашей учёбы увлечение бегом может стать помехой.

Бег трусцой в городской среде или в любом месте, где в той или иной степени присутствует загрязнение, уменьшает вашу способность воспринимать новую информацию. Брюссельский университет поделили бегунов на две группы: одни регулярно бегают в городе, другие — за городом. Выяснилось, что у городских бегунов снижена концентрация внимания и реакция. Это связано с высокой концентрацией вредных веществ в крови после часа бега. Выходом будет бегать в ветреный день или в дождь, когда в городе всё-таки становится почище.

5. Стресс

7 способов, которыми учёба в университете делает вас глупее

Стресс — это обычная часть университетской жизни. Вы постоянно находитесь на виду, ваше будущее зависит от ваших оценок, и вам часто приходится скрывать свои действия. В такой обстановке адекватно реагировать на стрессовые ситуации становится всё труднее.

Йельский Стрессовый центр обследовал 100 человек, прошедших в прошлом через сильнейшие стрессовые ситуации. Результаты показали, что чем сильнее был пережитый стресс, тем больше была перефронатльная кора — область мозга, ответственная за контроль импульсов и эмоциональную стабильность. Эти способности важны для нашей способности учиться на собственно опыте. Более того, стресс снижает количество нейронов в мозге, уменьшая таким образом способность мозга обрабатывать и хранить новую информацию.

6. Сон

7 способов, которыми учёба в университете делает вас глупее

Необходимость постоянно вставать рано или проводить бессонные ночи, готовясь к лекциям, также может сделать вас глупее. В Университете Беркли провели опыт на хомяках, чтобы узнать, как именно недостаток сна влияет на умственные способности. График сна хомяков изменялся каждые 6 дней, и в результате нейронная активность зверьков снизилась на 50%. Некоторые из них даже не смогли найти колесо.

Хомяки демонстрировали снижение умственных способностей на протяжении месяца уже после того, как вернулись к нормальному распорядку дня. Таким образом, недостаток сна может иметь долгосрочные последствия.

7. Лекции

7 способов, которыми учёба в университете делает вас глупее

Статистика показывает, что большую часть времени в университете мы проводим, слушая чужой монолог. Так мы учимся. Но в то же время такой способ обучения снижает вашу способность принимать разумные решения. 24 студента отвечали на вопросы о том, как они используют ту или иную финансовую возможность, воспользуются ли удобным случаем в тех или иных обстоятельствах. Одновременно с этим им делали магнитно-резонансную томографию мозга. В каких-то случаях испытуемые получали советы от «экспертов», в каких-то — нет.

По большей части участники исследования поступали именно так, как им советовали, даже если это было сопряжено с риском. А когда никаких рекомендаций они не получали, то принимали риск в расчёт и принимали решение самостоятельно, базируясь на всех известных данных, и уже после этого давали ответ. Согласно МРТ, активность мозга в таких случаях была выше.


http://www.factroom.ru/facts/30167

Теги: глупость, университет, способ, 7 способов, учёба





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